l Chapters of the book in PDF:

Table of Contents

A-F: Cold winter in Europe 1939/40 -1941/42


B. Winter 'Package'

C. Winter 1939/40

D. Winter 1940/41

E. Winter 1941/42

F. El Niño

Global Cooling 
(1940 to 1970)

G. Atlantic Battle

H. Pacific War

I. World War I with
Arctic Warming (1919-1940)


J. Result

K.List of


about 15MB

L. Fig-Index
page by page,
 about 4 MB each

211 (A1-1 to A3-5)

212 (A3-6 to B-24

213 (B-25 to C4-1)

214 C4-2 to C7-8)

215 C7-9 to D-15)

216 (D-16 to E3-6)

217 E3-7 to G1-2)

218 (D1-3 to H-15)

219 (H16 to I-17

Northern Europe’s Mild Winters.
Contributions from Offshore Industry, Ships,
Fishery, et cetera?

December 2015 - Hamburg, Germany

Abstract: The marine environment of North Sea and Baltic is one of the most heavily strained by numerous human activities. Simultaneously water and air temperatures increase more than elsewhere in Europe and globally, which cannot be explained with ‘global warming’. The climatic change issue would be better understood if this extraordinary regional warming is sufficiently explained. The regional features are unique for in-depth studies due to different summer-winter conditions, shallowness of the seas, geographical structure, and main pathway for maritime weather patterns moving eastwards. The impact of sea activities on the seasonal sea water profile structure is contributing to stronger regional warming, change in growing season, and less severe sea ice conditions. The impact of the man, whether small or large, should be understood very soon and very thoroughly.

Keywords: Human maritime activities, sea temperature increase, North Sea and Baltic warming, change in seasonality, sea ice decrease.

Continue reading

  LINK to:

Revised essay from Feb. 2015
(see below)

Offshore Wind-parks and mild Winters.
Contribution from Ships, Fishery, Windparks etc.
Posted 25th February 22, 2015

Entire post in:     English    French   German     Polish

The effect of stirring

The actual winter 2014/15 is up to now no winter in Northern Europa (Fig. 1-2). Can anthropogene activities in the North Sea, Baltic and coastal seas be made partly responsible? Presumably yes! Stirring hot coffee will cool it down. At the end of August the sea areas have gained their maximum potential of warmth. Many ship propellers are plowing through the sea stirring the surface layer to a depth of 15 meters. In the North Sea and Baltic there are continuously up to ten thousand large motor ships at sea. Several thousand offshore facilities on the bottom of the sea or anchored offshore rigs divert currents at sea and influence tides and currents as a permanent resistance against the normal flow of huge amounts of ocean water. (Fig. 3-8) The result is like stirring hot soup. Warm water will come to the surface and the heat will supply the atmosphere with warmth. The air will become warmer and the winters will be milder. The correlation is not to be overseen. It is not relevant to climate research or agencies allowing offshore structures who do not consider such evaluations.   

    22nd International  Conference PACON
June 1 - 5 June, 2010,  

University of  Hawai`i at   Hilo 

 The Arctic European winters 1939/40 to 1941/42
caused by naval war? How to substantiate?
Full conference paper in PDF, pages 20

Saturday, 5th June, Session 8B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Lorenz Magaard

By analyzing the structure of the temperature records in the sphere of the North and Baltic Sea it can be shown that the sudden climatic shift 70 years ago is intertwined with the naval activities of WWII. It caused the coldest winters for more than 100 years. The examination of air temperature data series  (Nasa/Giss) reveal that the locations most effected by extreme low temperatures  were close to those sea areas with the highest naval activities, in 1939/40, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea. After the invasion of Norway the Skagerrak region experienced a record cold winter 1940/41, and the severe winter conditions in 1941/42 can be attributed the Eastern Baltic Sea where naval force had been active since the German ambush on Russia in June 1941. Such three cold winter in succession have never been observed. Any confirmation or exclusion of the naval war thesis, would enhance ocean science on climatic matters, and the understanding of the reasons of the global cooling period from 1940 to the 1970s, which is still pending.  View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,9 MB) – Click HERE , The Power Point Presentation in PDF ( ca. 3 MB) : Here

 The Pacific War and a climatic shift,
1942-1945: Correlation or Causation?

Full conference paper in PDF, pages 16

Saturday, 5th June, Session 8B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Lorenz Magaard

Although it is an established fact that during WWII a global cooling commenced that lasted for three decades, rarely any question have been asked, whether the significant correlation to naval activities in the Western North Pacific left a fingerprint in the temperature data at that time. As the US Navy and her Allies assembled  a huge strike force since 1943 until the surrender of Japan in August 1945, their enormous range of activities at and under the sea surface could have changed the structure of sea layers at some depths considerably, either warming, or cooling the sea surface layer. The paper will discuss the circumstances during the relevant years, and  analyze data sets, with the aim to demonstrate that the impact of WWII activities in the Pacific rectify to investigate the strong correlation thoroughly, as even a small contribution of naval war activities to the global cooling since 1945 should be known, understood, and a subject in the climate change debate.  View the Poster in PDF (below) – Click HERE , The Power Point Presentation in PDF ( ca. 3 MB) : Here

Does the term ‚climate’ hinders a fruitful discussion?
Full conference paper in PDF, pages 11

Saturday, 5th June, Session 7B, 03:00pm to 05:20pm, Chair: Richard Hildreth

While the debate on the climatic change issue has reached unprecedented global prominence over the recent years, the content is often a fierce clash of opinions rather than a fruitful discussion. One reason could be the use of insufficiently defined terms in climatology. The key term ‘climate’ is used by lay persons, politics, and science alike, while the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) does not define the term at all. Instead the Convention defines ‘climate change’ and ‘climate system’, which does not necessarily mean that it makes the terminology more definite. This requires to look at the ordinary meaning as used since Ancient Greek and how science explains the terms nowadays, and whether it is done in a manner that avoids confusion, or misleading interpretation. As science is supposed to define and use terms and definitions with care, the current situation may require that the major terms used in climatology are revised. View for PDF   or    Powerpoint

More material at:    

POSTER I: There is no causation without correlation!
Global Cooling and Naval War?

Poster on Display, 2nd June to 5th June 2010
View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,9 MB) – Click HERE 

 A better understanding of the perfect time correlation between naval activities during the Second World War and the start of a three decade long global cooling since 1940 could prove the role that anthropogenic activities may have had on the marine environment and climatic change matters.  Although the global temperatures had been at the highest in the 1930s since the mid 19th Century, Northern Europe was suddenly back in the Little Ice Age after only four months in WWII. The study provides an overview of links between naval activities and a change of air temperatures, first during the extreme cold winters in Europe 1939/40, 1940/41 and  1941/42, followed by a three decade long global cooling.  A significant fact of the three war winters in Europe is their appearance in succession, which is rare.  As soon as the naval went global after December 1941, a simultaneous decrease of sea and air temperature throughout the Northern Hemisphere became evident. The number of links between human activities during WWII and temperature changes should not be ignored. 


POSTER II: Pacific Cooling from 1943-1970; Influenced byNaval War?

Poster on Display, 2nd June to 5th June 2010
View the Poster in PDF (ca. 1,3 MB) – Click HERE

Was the Naval War in the Pacific from 1943-1945 not only devastating to man and material, but did it also altered substantially the structure of the sea surface layer with a subsequent impact on the air temperatures? Until now the question has received little attention although it is evident that a rising trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode for three decades until the mid 1970s by about 1943. While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to asses, the naval war in the Pacific from 1943-1945 could be regarded as a large-scale ‘field experiment’ due to the suddenness, the hugeness and the intensity it penetrated the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What impact had the Pacific War on climate? It seems time to pay attention to the matter.

About the Author

Archive of 
texts posted


Previous Essays


Atlantic SST, 1998

PDF            WORD

Black Sea, GKSS; 1997



Pacific SST, 1997

PDF             WORD

Pacon, ITLOS, 1997

PDF             WORD

Peace to Ocean, 1996

PDF             WORD

Sea Law Inst., 1994

PDF          WORD

Peace to Ocean, 1994

PDF           WORD

LOS, 1994

PDF          WORD

LOS, 1993


PDF             WORD

Climate, GKSS, 1992

PDF             WORD

Nature, Letter, 1992

PDF             WORD


Previous work
prior 2010

PDF            WORD 

Conference Paper
Word        PDF

PowerPoint       PDF

Ocean Science Meeting 
22-26 February 2010, Oregon Convention Center, Portland/Oregon 
Is the climatic shift since winter 1939/40 a sea related matter?

Jpg   - PDF

Dr. Arnd Bernaerts

Essays in German

The Author




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